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NIAA Symposium • October 26-27, 2011 • Chicago, Illinois

Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: A Dialogue for a Common Purpose

Pfizer Animal Health Funded in part by the Beef Checkoff National Pork Board


Last Updated: January 6, 2012 11:09 AM
The 2011 Antibiotics Symposium White Paper.
Synchronized audio/video accompanying each presentation or audio only for those without presentations are provided by Truffle Media. Click here for the full list of synchronized presentations, or select "Audio" next to the speaker's presentation to go directly to his/her presentation. (To view through YouTube, click here.)
Wednesday, October 26
  Welcome and Purpose of Symposium
Dr. Scott Hurd, Associate Professor, Iowa State University College of VeterinaryMedicine, Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine and former Deputy Undersecretary for Food Safety, USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service
  • The presence of a hazard creates concern, but concern is not risk.
  • Human health risk requires sufficient exposure that will result in actual harm.
  • The causal chain for antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacterial food borne risk assessment includes 1) AMR bacteria are selected in the food animal as a result of antimicrobial use, AND, 2) humans ingest sufficient AMR bacteria present in the relevant food product from treated animals, AND, 3) disease which causes the patient to seek medical care and treatment with an antibiotic to which the bacteria is resistant that results in an adverse health outcome.
  • Acceptable risk is difficult to determine but should include public benefits of alternative practice.
  • Risk management interventions at various points along the causal chain are intended to minimize and contain AMR foodborne bacteria to ensure public health and food safety.
  • An expected outcome for the meeting are action points for NIAA, stakeholders and consumers to contribute positively to NIAA goals.
  Antibiotics in Food Animal Production and Human Health
  A Clinical Pharmacologist's View of the Interaction of Antimicrobials and Bacteria
in Food Animals

Dr. Mike Apley, Professor, Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Production Medicine/Clinical Pharmacology
  • Attempting to define "subtherapeutic"
  • Selection pressure: We talk as if this is a black and white concept.
  • Evaluating effects of antimicrobial use in food animal populations: The numerators are easy.
  • Antimicrobial resistance surveillance: Looking for guidance in temporal associations
  The Challenge of Antibmicrobial Resistance in Human Health
Dr. Robert Flamm, Director of Antimicrobial Development, JMI Laboratories
  • Bacterial resistance threatens the utility of antimicrobial agents.
  • Scientific and government efforts have been implemented to preserve and encourage the discovery of new agents.
  • Bacterial resistance rates continue to climb worldwide with the escalation as well as the types of contributing genes.
Thursday, October 27
 Antibiotics in Food Animal Production
  Mr. Ron Phillips, Vice President of Legislative and Public Affairs, Animal Health Institute (No presentation available)
  • Much of the public debate on this issue has focused on the volume of antibiotics used in animal agriculture. Does volume matter, and is it an indication of the public health threat? How accurate are the numbers typically reported?
  • Critics have charged antibiotic use is unnecessary and is used only to facilitate certain production systems. How and why are antibiotics used in animal agriculture? What role is played by FDA?
  • Weighing the risks and benefits undefined What are the public health implications of not using antibiotics in animal agriculture?
    Panelists to Address Specific Questions:
    Beef Cattle: Dr. Mike Apley, Professor, Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Production Medicine/Clinical Pharmacology (No presentation available) [No Audio Available]
    Dairy Cattle: Dr. Mike Lormore, Director of Dairy Veterinary Operations, Pfizer Animal Health (No presentation available) [No Audio Available]
    Poultry: Dr. Hector Cervantes, Senior Manager of Poultry Technical Services - North American Region, Phibro Animal Health (No presentation available) [No Audio Available]
    Swine:  Dr. Paul Ruen, Fairmont Veterinary Clinic [No Audio Available]
  Human Health Implications Relative to Antibiotic Use
  Initiatives to Ensure Public Health, Food Safety, Animal Health and Welfare of Antibiotic Use in Food Animals
Dr. Tom Shryock, Senior Research Advisor of Microbiology, Elanco Animal Health
  • Estimated bacterial food borne disease has decreased, and not all isolates are resistant to antibiotics.
  • Similar antibiotic classes used in both animals and humans are categorized for importance, yet there is little connection to human non-food borne disease treatment uses.
  • Overview of international organizations (WHO, OIE and Codex) risk management strategies which are now being implemented at the national level.
  • Implications: Risk management actions will reshape veterinarians' access to antibiotics and the practice of veterinary medicine with an unknown impact on public health and food safety.

Challenges in Antibiotic Product Development in a Rapidly Changing Global Landscape Dr. Scott Brown, Senior Director of Metabolism and Safety, Pfizer Animal Health                

  • Antibiotics are the only product category where increased use theoretically promotes more rapid obsolescence.
  • The changing global landscape of antibiotic use restrictions has undermined the value of new product development.
  • The speed of change of the regulatory and political landscapes is moving faster than product development can move.
  • The results of these actions will reduce the ability of veterinarians to treat and control animal diseases over the next 10-15 years.
  Risk Management Approaches to Antimicrobial Resistance in the U.S. and Abroad:
Expectations, Results and Conundrums

Dr. H. Morgan Scott, Professor, Kansas State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Epidemiology
  • How surveillance is used both to inform risk management decision-making and ideally to monitor any resulting changes to the bacterial populations.
  • Examine the underlying scientific principles that should guide risk management and intervention at the animal, farm, industry and national levels.
  • Examine the conflicting pressures brought to bear when attempting to conserve "critically important" antimicrobials for human medicine while at the same time restricting access to less important but widely used antimicrobial options in animal agriculture.
  U.S. FDA Initiatives Regarding the Judicious Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing

Dr. William T. Flynn, Deputy Director for Science Policy, Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine
  • FDA outlined several key objectives in a June 2010 draft guidance regarding the judicious use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals.
  • The focus of FDA's strategy is on phasing-in certain changes to how antimicrobial drugs of human medical importance are used in animal agriculture.
  • Examine the approach for implementing such changes to help minimize the impacts on animal agriculture, the animal health industry and the animal feed industry.
  • The goals to address the public health concern associated with the use of these drugs while also assuring the health needs of animals continue to be met.
  Livestock MRSA: Understanding and Communicating the Risks
  Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus aureus: An Overview
Dr. Tara Smith, Assistant Professor, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology
  • Introduction to livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus
  • Current state of knowledge regarding S. aureus and livestock in the U.S. and around the world
  • Differential epidemiology in the U.S. versus Europe; what defines a "livestock" strain?
  • S. aureus in raw meats undefined livestock or human contamination?
  • Data gaps and research needs
  Livestock Associated MRSA: What is the Appropriate Level of Concern?
Dr. Peter Davies, Professor, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Population Medicine
  • What don't we know about colonization of livestock workers?
  • What don't we know about disease risk and public health risk?
  • What don't we know about the emergence of livestock associated MRSA?
  • What is the appropriate level of concern?
  Reaching Out to Consumers - Moving Forward
Dr. Mike Lormore, Director of Dairy Veterinary Operations, Pfizer Animal Health
  • Communicating with consumers about our common values is more important than communicating scientific understanding.
    • "People need to know that you care before they care that you know."
  • Providing basic information has a significant positive impact on consumer attitudes about meat and dairy, especially regarding:
    • the use of antibiotics to treat sick animals and
    • the various protections undefined many already in place undefined to help ensure product safety.
  • To bolster customers' confidence, industry professionals and producers should be making basic facts available to the food chain.
  • These core messages will help:
    • Animals are under the care of licensed veterinarians.
    • Sick animals should be treated with medicines, such as antibiotics, to restore their health as long as protections are in place to ensure that their meat or milk is safe for people.
    • If medicine, such as antibiotic, is administered to help sick animals, then their meat or dairy products are not allowed to enter the food supply until the medicine has sufficiently cleared the animal's system.
    • Milk is tested and withdrawn from the human food supply if tests are positive for antibiotic residues.
    • Vaccines are used to protect animals from various illnesses.

"If we try to live in our own world and make decisions based on a small amount of input, the decisions may come faster but the quality of output is not as good. I see NIAA as being essentially a forum where different groups involved in livestock production can come together to resolve issues that really take input and discussion from all segments of industry and NIAA is where that happens." undefined Jon Caspers, National Pork Producers Council, NIAA Member


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